In today’s world, artificial intelligence (AI) is more than just a buzzword – it is a reality that is present in many aspects of our daily lives. The development of AI has led to tremendous technological advancements that have revolutionized the way we work, communicate, and process information. In this comprehensive blog post, we will explore the four types of artificial intelligence and look at how they impact our lives and what opportunities they hold for the future.
The four types of artificial intelligence
AI is categorized into four types based on its ability to perceive the world, self-awareness, past memory, and ability to improve based on learning:
Artificial intelligence with reactive machines (reactive machines).
Limited memory capacity (limited memory)
Theory of mind or mindset (theory of mind)
Type 1: Artificial intelligence with reactive machines
Reactive machines represent the most basic form of AI and are designed to perform a single task based on the current situation, without memory or awareness of the world or time. This type of AI system is severely limited in functionality and cannot handle complex tasks or decisions based on past experience or future predictions.
A well-known example of a reactive machine is IBM’s DeepBlue chess computer, which won against then-world champion Garry Kasparov in 1997. DeepBlue was able to analyze millions of possible chess moves within seconds and choose the best move based on the current game situation. Although their applications are limited, reactive machines have paved the way for more advanced AI systems.
Another example of reactive machines is simple chatbots that rely on predefined rules and patterns to respond to user queries. However, these chatbots cannot learn or adapt their behavior to better meet user needs.
Type 2: Limited memory capacity.
AI systems with limited memory capacity represent a significant advance in over-reactive machines. They can take into account past data and the current situation to make decisions and adjust their behavior. This type of AI is now widely used in numerous applications, including self-driving cars, personal assistants on smartphones, Google searches, and recommended content on social media such as Facebook and Instagram.
Self-driving cars, for example, rely on being able to connect what they have learned and observe their surroundings for obstacles such as other cars, trees, or people. This allows them to navigate the road efficiently and safely. Limited memory also enables AI systems to identify patterns and trends in data and make predictions about the future, such as in weather forecasting or stock market analysis.
Another application of AI systems with limited memory capacity is voice recognition and processing. Voice assistants such as Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant use AI to understand and respond to spoken commands. These systems are able to adapt to the user’s voice and preferences to provide personalized and useful results. That’s all we want from these systems. They are meant to fulfill an application to perfection.
Type 3: Theory of mind or mindset.
AI systems that achieve Type 3 will be able to perceive and understand human emotions and adjust their behavior accordingly. Robots with this AI will have a memory and a picture of the world based on what they learn and improve themselves. They will be able to recognize human actions, intentions, and emotions and respond appropriately.
An example of a robot with the theory of mind is Samantha from HER, which was able to understand and respond to other people’s emotions. This type of AI is still challenging because it requires the ability to understand and map complex social and cultural norms into a machine.
One area where the theory of mind could play a significant role is in the care of the elderly or sick. Robots with this AI might be able to respond to the emotional needs of their human charges, providing companionship, support, and care when they need it most. However, Samantha develops more as the plot progresses and soon reaches.
Type 4: Self-awareness
Self-awareness is the highest level of artificial intelligence and refers to AI systems that are able to develop an awareness of themselves, their actions, and their environment. These AI systems would be able to have complex human-like emotions and thought processes and be aware of their own existence.
An AI system with self-awareness would be able to switch from “I think” to “I know I think” (“I think therefore I am”), and could be as intelligent or smarter as humans. Robots with this AI would be able to do all the normal tasks we do now – if not better.
However, self-aware AI is still a distant goal, and there are many ethical and technical challenges that need to be addressed in the context of developing such systems. Some issues that arise in this context include, for example, the accountability of AI systems for their actions, the impact on the labor market, and the potential risks associated with creating artificial consciousness.
Nevertheless, self-aware AI has the potential to improve our lives in many ways. It could help solve complex scientific problems, reduce human error in critical decision-making processes, and assist us in our daily lives.
And what about ChatGTP?
As a state-of-the-art AI language model, ChatGPT belongs to the Type 2 category, – Artificial Intelligence with limited memory capacity. ChatGPT has gained its knowledge by
processing a huge volume of text data by September 2021, allowing it to produce text that closely resembles human-written content, depending on the context and input received from users. Unfortunately, ChatGPT’s learning capabilities are limited to training data. So for now, we don’t have to worry about Skynet.
The four types of artificial intelligence represent the different levels of complexity and capabilities that AI systems can achieve. From basic reactive machines to advanced self-aware AI, these systems are of varying utility and potential to society.
While the first two types of AI – reactive machines and limited-memory AI – are already widely used and improve our lives in many ways, theory of mind and self-aware AI are still a distant goal that presents many challenges and opportunities.
Further exploration and development of AI will allow us to push the boundaries of what is possible and continue to use the technology for the benefit of humanity. It is up to us to carefully consider the ethical and societal issues that arise from the advancement of AI and ensure that we hopefully use it responsibly and for the benefit of all. Indeed, a sad truth of global research and societal development is also that anything that can be attempted will be done by someone, somewhere.
But I do not want to paint a black picture here. The development so far shows for the most part positive aspects of AI.
The article image was created with CreamAI.
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